The development of normal human cells mostly depends on the cell’s chromosomes. Chromosomes are large molecules of Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA). DNA is the chemical that carries the instructions for nearly everything our cells do. We resemble our parents because they are source of our DNA. However, DNA affects more than our outward appearance.

Some genes (packets of DNA) have instruction for controlling when our cells grow and divide. Certain genes that promote cell division are called oncogenes others that slow down cell division or cause cells to die at the right time are called tumor suppressor genes.

Cancer can be caused by DNA mutations (genes defects) that turn on oncogenes or turn off tumour suppressor genes. Scientists now think that Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) causes production of 2 proteins known as E6 and E7. When these proteins are produced, they turn off some tumor suppressor genes. This may allow the cervical lining cells to grow uncontrollably, which in some cases will lead to cancer.

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